I


1

XIX XX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(.),

. . . . . .

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

1880 2.400 (.) - , 1903

1880 . 3.000 () - , 1993

1882 5.600 - , 1993

1890-1893 8.143 - , 1903

1893 - 4.328 , 1905

1895 25.495 . 4.500 , 1895

1895 26.631 4.500 . 1897

1897 29.007 4.495 , 1898

1897 - 4.254 , 1898

1897 28.113 -

1897 - 4.151 , 1905

1897 28.113 4.268

1898 29.007 4.254 , 1898

1898 31.964 4.151 , 1899

1898 - 3.415 , 1905

1899 - 3.862 , 1905

1900 - 4.151 , 1905

1901 - 3.982 , 1905

1901 36.595 - , 1906

1901 32.198 (/.) . 4.000 , 1905

 

2

_____________________________________________________________________________

(. .) (. )

 

1886 635 1892 1.400

1887 970 1893 1.573

1888 1.134 1894 1.837

1889 1.237 1895 2.064

1890 1.357 1896 2.913

1891 1.417 1897 4.856

____________________________

(, 1903).

 

3

_____________________________________________________________________________

. (. . .)

_____________________________________________________________________________

1808 2.847 , 1898;

1822 2.571 , 1898;

1850 2.885 , 1875

1854 2.418 , 1875

1860- 2.050 , 1875

. 3.000 , 1875

2.816                                                                                        , 1875

1872 2.426 , 1898;

1870- 2.370 , 1898

1876 1.583

1884-1887 1.183 , 1898

1.01.1895 1.400 , 1895

1895 1.168 , 1895

1.01.1897 1.399 , 1898

1897 1.443 ; , 1912

1.01.1898 1.500 , 1898

1898 1.312 , 1898

1898 1.296 , 1899

1900 1.088 , 1905

1901 715 (?) , 1905

1901 1.200 . 1906

1904 1.362 , 1907

3,

_____________________________________________________________________________

. . .

_____________________________________________________________________________

1907 1.535 1926 1.409 1934 1.512

1919 1.536 1927 1.512 1935 1.508

1920 1.353 1928 1.534 1936 1.445

1921 1.331 1929 1.484 1937 1.333

1922 1.228 1930 1.436 1938 1.274

1923 1.491 1931 1.533 1939 1.263

1924 1.325 1932 1.475 1940 1.252

1925 1.339 1933 1.354 1946 1.159

_______________________

(, 1985).

4

_____________________________________________________________________________

. (. . .)

_____________________________________________________________________________

1850- 2.398 , 1858

1854 1.704 ,

1870- 1.500 , 1898

1891 1.744 ,

1.01.1895 . 2.000 , 1895

1897 1.967 , 1898

1.01.1898 2.000 , 1898

1.01.1898 1.832 , 1899

1900 1.391 , 1905

1901 1.544 , 1905

1901 1.800 , 1906

1912 1.923 , 1913

1925 2.141* , 1933

1927-1928 1.700

+ 111 . ,

1920- 1.368 , 1930

1959 1.938 , 1963

1970 2.118 , 1973

1979 2.054

2001 2.550 , 2003

____________________

* , , . . .

5

_____________________________________________________________________________

. (. . .)

_____________________________________________________________________________

1870- 200 ( ) , 1898

1.01.1895 750 , 1895

1895 770 , 1897

1.01.1897 773 , 1898

1897 749

1897 745

1897 749 , 1912

1897 445 ( )

304 ( ) , 1994

1.01.1898 . 800 , 1898

1898 773 , 1899

1900 365 ( ) , 1905

1901 483 , 1905

1901 . 800 , 1906

1907 334 ( )

1912 129 ( ) , 1913

1924 154 ( ) , 1929

1925 153 ( ) , 1929

1925 149 ( ) , 1933

1926 162 ( ) , 1994

300 () 1994

1937 , 1994

1959 , 1963

1970 , 1973

1979 317 ()

1990 320 ( ) ., 1999

1997 289 ( ) ., 1999

6

()

( 1897 . )

_____________________________________________________________________________

. (. . .)

_____________________________________________________________________________

1891 99 , 1895

1894 105 , 1895

1.01.1895 . 200 , 1895

1895 102 , 1895

1.01.1897 127 , 1898

1897 143 ;

1.01.1898 . 160 , 1898

1898 157 , 1899

1900 148 , 1905

1901 169 , 1905

1901 200 , 1906

1912 225 , 1913

1925 172 , 1999

1959 , 1963

1970 , 1973

1979

2001 253 , 2003

__________________

1959, 1970 1979 . : , ; 1979 . .

7

( 1897 . -)

_____________________________________________________________________________

. (. . .)

_____________________________________________________________________________

1.01.1897 13 , 1898

1.01.1898 13 , 1898

1898 13 , 1899

1900 10 , 1905

1901 10 , 1905

_________________

.

7

.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

 

1900 1.400 2.000 750 200 - - 4.000*

1900 1.088 1.390 848 148 10 - 3.485**

1920- 1.484 1.811 462 172 - - 4.929

1959 - 1.938 - - - -

1970- - 2.054 317 - -

2000-2001 - 2.550 344 253 - 189 3.395

_______________________

* , 5, 1896.

** , 4.151 (, 1905).

. . . (2003) , , 5, 1896, XX . 4.000 . 1.01.2001, , 3.395 (); , , . . , . XXI . , , , (. , . .) . 1.01.2001 3.395 ., 1.280 18 , 2.115 .

1900 . 3.485, . . 4.151 . , 1896 ., 4.000 . (1.088 .), 1949- . . 2.912. 2.115 . () 797 . 38% /; , . , ( ) , . . 1945 . . . (, 1994), , 10% .

, , . , , , . , . 1950- . , , . (189), , , , 2001 . 1.926 . , . , , .

, , . , . / , .

, , , . . . , 1991 . ( 30 ) ( ) , 41; 1999 . (3), , 2000 ., , 10.

8

(.)

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

1894 364.003 29.215 , 1895

1896 - 96.799 , 1897

1896 415.000 245.000 , 1903

1897 593.585 180.682 , 1898

1898 962.122 (. . ) , 1899

XIX . . 2.000.000 .

(. . )

XIX

. XX . 5.000.000

( ) - , 1903

1901 - 5.600.000 , 1903

_____________________________________________________________________________

:

1886 88.500 1892 230.275

1887 124.000 1893 226.000

1888 150.200 1894 369.200

1889 168.304 1895 -

1890 190.500 1896 415.126

1891 91.636 1897 556.666

_________________________

(, 1903).

1920-1925 64.242.000 .

(. . ) (, , .)

________________________

(, 1933).

9

(.)

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

1876-1885 129.337 , 1905

1886-1895 199.088 , 1905

1896-1899 365.765 , 1905

1899 345.024 , 1905

1900-1902 228.114 , 1905

1901 200.000 , 1903.

10

(.)

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

1879 1.834 1894 73.360

1880 5.702 1895 175.656

1881 7.336 1896 305.376*

1882 917 1897 303.101

1883 917 1898 301.691

1890 3.668 1899 576.099

1891 18.340 1900 930.364

1892 27.510 1901 983.277

1893 36.680 1902 1.136.025

__________________

(, 1905).

XIX . XX . 800.000** (, 1905).

___________________

* . , : 1986 . 415.216 (, 1897), 1898 . . 600.000 . (, 1905).

** 1 4 560 . ; , 3 440 . (, 1905).

11

(.)

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

1860 133.000 1886 409.797

1865 8.700 1887 487.544

1870 123.000 1888 364.209

1880 501.900 1889 404.400

1881 317.500 1890 686.717

1882 807.200 1891 735.782

1883 371.250 1893 994.920

1884 424.000 1895 1.000.608

1885 549.220 1896 1.675.226

______________________

(, 1897).

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

1897 1.079.631 , 1898

1898 692.764,4 , 1899

1899 2.356.960

12

(.)

_____________________________________________________________________________

- - . . -

_____________________________________________________________________________

1895 - 5.964 - , 1905

1.01.1896 5.289 5.964 1,1 , 1897

1897 5.594 - 3,9

1.01.1898 - 4.940-5.190 1,5 , 1899

1900 - 7.100 - , 1905

13

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 1926 1928-1929 . . 1940 . .

. . 1- . 2- . 1941-1945 1946-1958

_____________________________________________________________________________

,

. 28 26 87,8 267,6 500 580 928*

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 1860-1920 1930 1932 1937 1940 1946-1977,

. . .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 15 44 160 320 412 2.400-5.800

.

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 1928 1930 1933 1937 1945 1960 1970 1977

. .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 33 162,6 429 273 20 200 2.044 38.000

. . .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 1927 1928 1932 1937 1943 1941-1945

. . .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 50 97,9 182 237,6 302,7 200**

.

____________________________

(: ., 1979).

, (2002), 1923-1925 . 24.580 .

______________________

* , (1959-1965), , , .

** , , , , . . .

 

. : . ., 1930.

. // , 12. ., 1858.

, .

. . : 1928 . // , 1. 1929.

, 1903.

, .

. . - : . , 1885.

: , 1963.

1973. . IV.

. // , 1895.

. . : // , 1898.

. . // , 4. 1993.

. . // , 3. 1999.

. . : // .

. . . ., 1933.

. ., . ., . . : , , . ., 1979.

. : . ., 1906.

. // . 2. 1994.

. // , 1897.

. . // : , . 3. 1913.

. . . ., 1898.

. . ., 1903.

. . , : . ., 1905.

. , , // : . I. ., 1912.

. . . // , . 10. , 1907.

. . . : . . 1946 . // , . II. -, 1985.

. . // , 3. 1999.

, 1895.

. 1897.

, 1898.

, 1899.

. ., . . () // , 3. 1999.

. . ( .) , 1897 . 77, . 1. ., 1899.

, 1984.

. . 1925-1941 // , 2. 2002.

. . : . ., 1905.

. . // , 1895.